Emergency Rule and Poverty Reduction in Pakistan;
Moreover, Pakistan suffers from a huge "human development deficit." In 1997, child mortality rates in Pakistan and Bangladesh were the same, at about 114 child deaths per 1000 births. Today, Bangladesh's rate is 77 and Pakistan's 101. In addition to low enrolment rates, especially for girls, there is evidence that the quality of education is extremely poor. In a sample of (better off) Punjabi villages, the share of 10-year-olds who could do single-digit addition and subtraction was 29 percent. These problems of basic service delivery cannot be solved without the active participation of communities and parents. In fact, the number of private schools has risen dramatically--from 32,000 in 2001 and 47,000 in 2005.
Finally, in the discussion about the rise of fundamentalism in Pakistan, two statistics are worth bearing in mind. Of the total number of enrolled children, the percentage enrolled in madrassahs is between 1-3 percent. And the maximum percentage of the vote won by fundamentalist Islamic parties in elections is 11 percent.
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